Vaccine Breaking News

Vaccine Breaking News

Vaccine breaking news brought to you by Precision Vaccinations. Denmark-based Bavarian Nordic A/S announced today an agreement with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to facilitate access to the JYNNEOS® (MVA-BN) monkeypox/smallpox vaccine for countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Jynneos vaccines will be made available to those countries in September 2022 that participate in PAHO’s Revolving Fund for Access to Vaccines. Bavarian Nordic has delivered the vaccine to several undisclosed countries globally as part of their national biological preparedness. Paul Chaplin, President, and CEO of Bavarian Nordic, stated in a press release on August 24, 2022, “… we are pleased to work with PAHO to ensure access to vaccines for its member states in the Americas.” “With the agreement, we have helped secure access to our vaccine in more than 70 countries globally, representing the vast majority of affected regions outside endemic areas.” “While the global supply is currently limited, we are working diligently to increase our manufacturing capacity and have taken steps to partner with other companies to produce more vaccines to help combat the outbreak rapidly.” The PAHO is the specialized health agency for the Americas, working with its 35 member countries throughout the region to improve and protect people’s health. MVA-BN or Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic, marketed as IMVANEX® in Europe, JYNNEOS® in the U.S., and IMVAMUNE® in Canada, is a non-replicating smallpox vaccine developed in collaboration with the U.S. government. In addition to smallpox, the U.S. FDA, Health Canada, the U.K., and the European Commission have also approved the vaccine against monkeypox. Additional monkeypox and smallpox vaccine deployment news is posted at PrecisionVaccinations.com/Monkeypox. Today’s Bavarian Nordic announcement was manually curated and translated for mobile readership. Researchers in the United Kingdom (UK) announced today they are leading a new clinical study investigating a potential treatment for people who have been diagnosed with monkeypox infections. ‘Although the early data on tecovirimat (TPOXX®) use are promising, only a randomized clinical trial will provide the evidence we need to treat patients with confidence.’ The study involves experts from the UK Health Security Agency, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, and the University of Liverpool, who have experience in the clinical assessment and laboratory analysis of human monkeypox infections. “In a public health emergency, the response is not about rushing around dishing out tablets that you think might work because that is seen to be doing something,” said Prof Sir Martin Landray, a joint chief investigator of the trial at the University of Oxford, reported The Guardian on August 23, 2022. “It’s about finding out what actually works as rapidly as you can and then responding to the results you see.” In PLATINUM, participants will be randomly allocated to receive a 14-day course of 600 mg tecovirimat twice daily or a matched placebo treatment. Unlike RECOVERY, which recruited hospital patients, PLATINUM will be a community-based trial, with participants taking the treatment or placebo in their own homes. Professor Sir Peter Horby commented, ‘Monkeypox is a distressing and sometimes dangerous infection.” “For the benefit of current and future patients worldwide diagnosed with monkeypox, we need definitive evidence that tecovirimat is safe and effective.” “Although the early data on tecovirimat are promising, only a randomized clinical trial will provide the level of evidence we need to treat patients with confidence.” The Medicines and Health products Regulatory Agency has commissioned and funded the PLATINUM study. On August 3, 2022, the U.S. CDC published Guidance for Tecovirimat use under the FDA’s Expanded Access Investigational New Drug Protocol. And on August 9, 2022, the U.S. HHS Secretary issued a 564 determination, paving the way for emergency use authorization of monkeypox treatments.  When the World Health Organization (WHO) recently announced the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) authorities were investigating a suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD) case in the country’s eastern province of North Kivu, many became concerned that this patient might represent a new EVD outbreak. According to an early release analysis published by Virological on August 22, 2022, ‘The new case of EVD in Beni is genetically linked to the 2018-2020 Nord Kivu/Ituri outbreak and does not represent a new spillover event.’ ‘The new sequence is most closely related to a cluster of cases occurring in Beni around November/December 2018 and had six additional mutations from this cluster.’ ‘Therefore, our initial findings indicate that this case likely represents a new flare-up of the 2018-2020 Nord Kivu/Ituri EVD outbreak, initiated by transmission of Ebola virus from a persistently infected survivor or a survivor who experienced a relapse.’ ‘This case may be the index case, or there may be previous cases that were not detected. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing to determine the source.’ “Ebola resurgences are occurring with greater frequency in the DRC, which is concerning,” said Dr. Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa, in a media statement on August 23, 2022. “However, health authorities in North Kivu have successfully stopped several Ebola flare-ups, and building on this expertise will no doubt bring this one under control quickly,” On August 17, 2022, 131 contacts were listed, including 60 front-line healthcare workers (HCW). Of the 131 pre-listed contacts, 59 of the 60 HCWs are vaccinated with Merck’s U.S. FDA-approved Ervebo vaccine. About 1,000 doses of Ebola vaccines are available in the DRC’s stockpile, 200 of which are in transit to Beni as of August 23, 2022. And regarding Ebola treatments, on August 19, 2022, the first version of the WHO’s Clinical Management for Ebola included strong recommendations for using monoclonal antibody therapies. However, access to Ebola vaccines and antibody treatments remains in limited distribution in the USA. Call your state health department for availability requirements. Since the start of the current monkeypox outbreak in the United States on May 17, 2022, the U.S. CDC has confirmed that 15,433 people have been infected with the virus. However, the CDC’s trend chart on August 22, 2022, indicates the rate of new infections is slowing down, even though all 50 states have now confirmed monkeypox virus (MPXV) patients. Globally, data sources indicate 44,348 MPXV probable/confirmed cases have been reported, with Spain (5,792) in second place behind the USA. Late last week, California Department of Public Health Director Tomas Aragon, M.D., DrPH, announced the state would begin calling the disease “mpox,” not “monkeypox.” And Director Aragon announced on August 18, 2022, more specific isolation measures for California residents with the mpox virus. Infected California residents should stay home until lesions are fully healed for 48 hours, and those with the virus who live with others should isolate alone. Once all skin lesions have healed (i.e., scabs have fallen off; a fresh layer of skin has formed at the lesion sites) and any other symptoms have been resolved for at least 48 hours, persons with MPX can resume normal activities says Californa. Regarding access to the Jynneos vaccine, the majority of states and jurisdictions have ordered the maximum quantity allowed under the current allocation system. Additional fact-checked monkeypox vaccine news is posted at PrecisionVaccinations.com/Monkeypox. New York-based Pfizer Inc. and BioNTech SE today announced they had completed a submission to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requesting Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for a booster dose of an Omicron BA.4/BA.5-adapted bivalent COVID-19 vaccine for individuals 12 years of age and older. The bivalent vaccine contains mRNA encoding the original SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which is present in the original Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine, together with mRNA encoding the spike protein of the Omicron BA.4/BA.5 variant. Albert Bourla, Chairman and CEO of Pfizer, stated in a press release on August 22, 2022, “Having rapidly scaled up production, we are positioned to immediately begin distribution of the bivalent Omicron BA.4/BA.5 boosters, if authorized, to help protect individuals and families as we prepare for potential fall and winter surges.” This application follows guidance from the FDA to include clinical data from the companies’ bivalent Omicron BA.1-adapted vaccine and pre-clinical and manufacturing data from the companies’ bivalent Omicron BA.4/BA.5-adapted vaccine to address the continued evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Data from a Phase 2/3 clinical trial of a 30-µg booster dose of their Omicron BA.1-adapted bivalent vaccine candidate elicited a superior immune response against the Omicron BA.1 variant compared to the companies’ current COVID-19 vaccine.  Pending EUA, the Omicron BA.4/BA.5-adapted bivalent vaccine will be available to ship immediately. The Comirnaty version is the worldwide leader in mRNA vaccine distribution during the COVID-19 pandemic. As of August 18, 2022, the U.S. NIH OpenData portal, in collaboration with ACTIV and industry partners, had not displayed in vitro therapeutic activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants for this vaccine candidate.  Japan-based Takeda today announced the company’s dengue vaccine, QDENGA®, was approved by the Indonesia National Agency for Drug and Food Control, Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan, for the prevention of dengue disease caused by any serotype in individuals six years to 45 years of age. QDENGA (Dengue Tetravalent Vaccine [Live, Attenuated]) (TAK-003) is the only dengue vaccine approved in Indonesia for use in individuals six years to 45 years of age regardless of previous dengue exposure and without the need for pre-vaccination testing. In Indonesia, QDENGA should be administered subcutaneously as a 0.5 mL dose at a two-dose (0 and 3 months) schedule. “Dengue can affect anyone living in or traveling to endemic areas – regardless of age, health, and socio-economic circumstances,” said Gary Dubin, president of Takeda’s Vaccine Business Unit, in a press release on August 22, 2022.  “Developing this innovative dengue vaccine has been an exciting challenge, and its approval in Indonesia is an important achievement for Takeda and for public health.” “We’re proud to introduce QDENGA as a new dengue prevention tool to the people of Indonesia, and we will continue to work with additional regulatory agencies to make QDENGA.” QDENGA was assessed across a robust clinical development program that included various Phase 1, Phase 2, and Phase 3 trials and more than 28,000 participants, including Takeda’s pivotal Tetravalent Immunization against Dengue Efficacy Study (TIDES) trial. The TIDES trial met its primary endpoint of overall vaccine efficacy against virologically-confirmed dengue with 80.2% efficacy at a 12-month follow-up.  Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that poses a significant global public health threat, with prevalence in over 125 countries. Recovery from infection by one dengue serotype provides lifelong immunity against only that serotype. However, later exposure to any of the remaining serotypes might be associated with an increased risk of severe disease. In the first half of 2022 alone, Indonesia reported over 63,000 dengue cases and nearly 600 related fatalities. As of August 15, 2022, the U.S. CDC stated ‘that dengue is a risk in many parts of Central and South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. These countries are reporting increased numbers of cases of the disease. And in the USA, the Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade County recently confirmed that it remains under a mosquito-borne illness advisory following the identification of the third local dengue infection in 2022. California-based Gilead Sciences, Inc. today announced that the European Commission had granted Marketing Authorization for Sunlenca® (lenacapavir) injection and tablets for the treatment of HIV infection. Lenacapavir is a first-in-class capsid inhibitor with a multi-stage mechanism of action and has no known cross-resistance to other existing drug classes, offering a new, every six-month treatment option for people with HIV whose virus no longer effectively responds to their current therapy. The Marketing Authorization Application for lenacapavir was supported by data from the Phase 2/3 CAPELLA study, which evaluated lenacapavir in combination with an optimized background regimen in people with multi-drug resistant HIV who are heavily treatment-experienced. In this patient population with a significant unmet medical need, 83% (n=30/36) of participants receiving lenacapavir in addition to an optimized background regimen achieved an undetectable viral load (<50 copies/mL) at Week 52. This is an essential authorization since there is currently no U.S. FDA-approved cure for HIV or AIDS. “Lenacapavir helps to fill a critical unmet need for people with complex prior treatment histories and offers physicians a long-awaited twice-yearly option for these patients who are at greater risk of progressing to AIDS,” said Jean-Michel Molina, MD, Université Paris Cité, Professor of Infectious Diseases and Head of the Infectious Diseases Department at the Saint-Louis and Lariboisière Hospitals, in a press release on August 22, 2022. “In the CAPELLA study, lenacapavir, in combination with other antiretroviral therapies, demonstrated sustained rates of virologic suppression and clinically meaningful CD4+ T-cell recovery in people with multi-drug resistant HIV. Lenacapavir provides an innovative long-acting HIV therapy option with the potential to transform the clinical landscape.” The marketing authorization applies to all 27 member states of the European Union, as well as Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein. In July 2022, the U.S. FDA accepted for review the New Drug Application resubmission for investigational lenacapavir. Additional HIV vaccine and treatment development news are posted at PrecisionVaccinations.com/HIV. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) confirmed it had facilitated an agreement between Bavarian Nordic and Grand River Aseptic Manufacturing (GRAM), a Michigan-based pharmaceutical contract manufacturer, to establish the first fill and finish line for the Jynneos® monkeypox / smallpox vaccine in the USA. “We continue to do everything we can to make more vaccine doses available more quickly to those in need,” said HHS Secretary Xavier Becerra in a press release on August 18, 2022. “Establishing a second (production) line in the U.S. will double the capacity to fill and finish these vaccines, create high-quality American jobs, and strengthen our domestic supply chain security.” Even before the contract was signed, Bavarian Nordic initiated the technology transfer necessary for this production at GRAM, and that transfer is on track to start manufacturing later this year. With biologics, small molecules, and vaccine capabilities, GRAM’s elite equipment and staff support pharmaceutical cGMP manufacturing, analytical testing, and regulatory filing.  To support the current monkeypox outbreak and future smallpox preparedness, the Biomedical Advance Research and Development Authority (BARDA) has ordered 5.5 million vials of Jynneos from Bavarian Nordic to be delivered from U.S. government-owned bulk vaccine stored in Denmark. Under that procurement agreement, Bavarian Nordic agreed to complete a technology transfer allowing 2.5 million vials to be filled and finished by a U.S.-based contract manufacturer. As of August 19, 2022, the U.S. government had shipped 1,061,913 Jynneos doses to states and territories, with California, Florida, and New York receiving the most vaccines. Bavarian Nordic (BN) has already taken several steps to increase the filling capacity at its manufacturing site in Denmark, now operating at the double the capacity as before the monkeypox outbreak in May 2022, with an expectation to further increase over the coming months.  Since 2003, BN has worked with the U.S. government on developing, manufacturing, and supplying non-replicating smallpox vaccines based on replicating vaccinia virus strains. The Company has supplied nearly 30 million doses of the vaccine to the U.S. government, with the vast majority being delivered for emergency use – and now expired – before approval of the vaccine by the U.S. FDA in 2019, which included authorization for the monkeypox indication. The Jynneos vaccine (IMVANEX, IMVAMUNE) is based on a live, attenuated vaccinia virus, Modified Vaccinia Ankara. It induces strong cellular activity and antibody immune response and has demonstrated an ability to stimulate a response even in individuals with pre-existing immunity against vaccinia. Additional monkeypox vaccine development news is posted at PrecisionVaccinations.com/Monkeypox. Note: The HHS and BN announcements were manually translated and curated for mobile readership. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported yesterday that the fourth 'swine flu' case of 2022 has been confirmed in Oregon. The Oregon Health Authority recently identified a human infection with a novel influenza A virus in a minor who was infected with an influenza A(H1N2) variant (A(H1N2)v) virus. An investigation by local public health officials did not identify contact with swine or agricultural fair attendance by the patient before illness onset. The additional investigation did not identify respiratory illness in any of the patient's household contacts, and no person-to-person spread of this virus has been confirmed to date associated with this case. In addition to the H1N2v (Oregon) case, the CDC confirmed the three H3N2v (West Virginia) cases as of August 19, 2022. When an influenza virus that normally circulates in swine is detected in a person, it is called a "variant influenza virus," says the CDC. Most human infections with variant influenza viruses occur following close proximity to swine, but human-to-human transmission can occur. It is important to note that in most cases, variant influenza viruses have not shown the ability to spread quickly and sustainably from person to person. The Eurasian H5N1 strain first appeared in North America in January 2022 and has affected poultry/birds in 38 states and led to the loss of about 40 million birds as of August 19, 2022. And on April 28, 2022, the state of Colorado reported the first influenza A (H5) virus infection in a man in Montrose County. The CDC says these are the first detections of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5) viruses in the U.S. since 2016.  Additional information on influenza in swine and avian influenza in the USA can be found at PrecisionVaccinations.com/Zoonotic. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced yesterday it had expanded the Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine, Adjuvanted emergency use authorization (EUA) to provide a two-dose primary series for active immunization to prevent COVID-19 in adolescents aged 12 through 17. On July 13, 2022, the FDA initially authorized the protein-based Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine for adults. "Having more vaccine options for use in both adults and adolescents, like the Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine, Adjuvanted will hopefully help increase vaccination rates, particularly as we prepare for ongoing surges of COVID-19 with the start of fall and the back-to-school season," stated Stanley C. Erck, President and Chief Executive Officer, Novavax, in a press release on August 19, 2022. "We hope that our vaccine, developed using an innovative approach to recombinant protein vaccine technology, may have a special role in adolescent vaccination based on parents' and caregivers' familiarity with protein-based vaccines used in other disease areas." Doses of the Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine, Adjuvanted, will become available for adolescents upon receiving the U.S. CDC's recommendation. This project has been supported in part by federal funds from the Department of Health and Human Services, the Administration for Strategic Preparedness and Response, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, and through the Department of Defense Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense. As of August 20, 2022, Novavax's vaccine has received various authorizations from more than 43 countries and is Listed by the World Health Organization. The World Health Organization (WHO) published today its first guideline for Ebola virus disease (EVD) therapeutics, with strong new recommendations for using two monoclonal antibodies.  Following a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of therapeutics for EVD, the WHO endorsed tmAb114 (Ebanga) and REGN-EB3 (Inmazeb) on August 19, 2022. Dr. Richard Kojan, the co-chair of the Guideline Development Group of experts selected by WHO and President of the Alliance for International Medical Action, commented in a media statement, "From now on, people infected with the Ebola virus will have a greater chance of recovering if they seek care as early as possible." "Timeliness is key with other infectious diseases, and people should not hesitate to consult health workers as quickly as possible to ensure they receive the best care possible." Patients should receive recommended neutralizing monoclonal antibodies as soon as possible after laboratory confirmation of diagnosis. The U.S. CDC says EVD is a rare and deadly disease in people who can become infected through direct contact with an infected animal or a sick or dead person infected with the virus. On April 23, 2022, the Ministry of Health in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared an outbreak of EVD. This was the 14th EVD outbreak in DRC. New data recently highlighted by GAVI found the typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) elicits a strong immune response among children and does not interfere with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine when given at the same time. This immune response data were nested within a vaccine efficacy study published in 2021, which demonstrated that TCV has 84% efficacy in reducing typhoid among children and may last for at least three years. Among infants who received TCV with MR vaccine, 99% achieved protective levels of antibody in their blood 28 days post-vaccination, and 68% maintained this protection for 2-3 years. This data shows that TCV and MR vaccines do not interfere with each other and can therefore be given at the same time. The recent study results provide even more evidence that TCV offers lifesaving protection to African children. The study results from Malawi are compatible with those from other TCV immunogenicity studies in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Burkina Faso, which also found that TCV can be safely co-administered with other routine vaccines. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends prioritization of routine TCV immunization among all children younger than 12 months of age in areas with a high burden of typhoid and/or drug-resistant typhoid. And the U.S. CDC recommends vaccination for people traveling to places where typhoid fever is common, such as South Asia, especially India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh. The injectable vaccine requires a booster every 2 years, and the oral vaccine requires a booster every 5 years. If you were vaccinated in the past, ask your doctor or pharmacist if it is time for a booster vaccination before visiting to at-risk areas. Moreover, taking antibiotics will not prevent typhoid fever; they only help treat it, says the CDC. People who do not get appropriate antibiotic treatment may have fever for weeks or months and may develop other health problems.  The WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization released its updated Good Practice Statement recommendations yesterday, confirming a second COVID-19 vaccine booster dose for elderly people to be defined by each country. The SAGE also recommended a second booster for adults with comorbidities that put them at higher risk of severe disease, including pregnant women and healthcare workers. The booster recommendation applies to all nine COVID-19 vaccines that have received WHO Emergency Use Listing: Ad26.COV2.S, Ad5-nCoV-S, BBV152, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1-S [recombinant], mRNA-1273, Sinopharm-BIBP, Sinovac-CoronaVac, and Novavax. The SAGE experts said in their recommendations on August 18, 2022, 'There is increasing evidence on the benefits of a second booster dose of COVID-19 vaccines in terms of restoring waning vaccine effectiveness.' 'However, the data mainly exist for mRNA vaccines with very limited data for other COVID-19 vaccines.' Nearly every country has implemented COVID-19 vaccination, and over 12 billion doses have been administered globally, resulting in WHO Member States reaching about 60% of their populations. Furthermore, as children and adolescents tend to have milder disease than adults unless they are in a group at higher risk of severe COVID-19, it is less urgent to vaccinate them, says the SAGE. The guidance is based on the evidence outlined in this document, which was presented to SAGE on August 11, 2022. Germany-based CureVac N.V. today announced the start of a Phase 1 study of the modified COVID-19 mRNA vaccine candidate CV0501, administered as a booster dose to previous COVID-19 vaccination. Developed in collaboration with GSK, CV0501 is based on CureVac’s second-generation mRNA backbone and is designed to specifically protect people against the Omicron variant. The Phase 1 dose-escalation study will be conducted at clinical sites in the U.S., the UK, Australia, and the Philippines and is expected to enroll up to 180 healthy, COVID-19-vaccinated adults to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a single booster dose of CV0501 in the dose range of 12µg to 50µg. Additional dose levels below 12µg and above 50µg may be evaluated if supported by safety and immunogenicity data at these dose levels. “Licensed COVID-19 vaccines that encode for the original virus variant continue to protect against severe disease and hospitalization, but they are increasingly challenged by immune evasion of new variants such as Omicron,” said CureVac interim Chief Development Officer Dr. Ulrike Gnad-Vogt, in a press release on August 18, 2022. “As we extend the clinical studies of our second-generation backbone into modified mRNA, targeting the Omicron variant will further explore the full potential of our improved second-generation design as a booster vaccination for a relevant variant.” The CV0501 study follows the start of a Phase 1 study in March 2022 that evaluates an unmodified second-generation COVID-19 vaccine candidate, CV2CoV, encoding for the original virus variant. The comprehensive approach evaluating both an unmodified and a modified, second-generation vaccine candidate against COVID-19 is expected to identify the best-performing candidate for later-stage clinical development. In line with this approach, data from both clinical studies are expected to be reported as a combined data set, stated the Company. Sanofi and the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) recently announced that the first patient had been enrolled in the Hospitalised RSV Monoclonal Antibody Prevention (HARMONIE) clinical study. HARMONIE is a phase 3b randomized open-label study of nirsevimab in preventing hospitalizations due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants under 12 months and will take place across approximately 280 sites The first patient visit occurred at Cripps Health Centre at the University of Nottingham, U.K., on August 8, 2022. More than 20,000 infants across the U.K., France, and Germany will be enrolled from August 2022 to March 2023, of which the majority (up to 12,000) will be U.K. infants. Nirsevimab is an investigational long-acting antibody aiming to protect all infants from birth entering their first RSV season with a single dose. Nirsevimab has been granted regulatory designations to facilitate expedited development by several regulatory agencies worldwide. These include Breakthrough Therapy Designation by The China Center for Drug Evaluation, Breakthrough Therapy Designation from the U.S. FDA, access granted to the European Medicines Agency PRIority MEdicines scheme, and Promising Innovative Medicine designation by the U.K. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Globally, there were approximately 30 million cases of acute lower respiratory infections in 2015. This led to more than 3 million hospitalizations, and it was estimated that there were 60,000 in-hospital deaths of children younger than five years. A team of Vanderbilt University scientists in the Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine recently confirmed that early-life RSV infection might have long-term respiratory health effects. The researchers found that RSV infection alters the metabolism of developing airway cells by driving epithelial cells to use different energy sources, resulting in altered barrier function, predisposing these patients to sensitization to allergens characteristic of allergic asthma. If the association between infant RSV infection and asthma is causal, prevention or delay in RSV infection could reduce the burden of both acute and chronic wheezing illnesses.  Please not reproduce this content in part or in whole without permission. Share the page URL which directs to the original content. 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